DAM SAFETY AND PART 12 INSPECTION EXPERIENCE

R. CRAIG FINDLAY, PH.D., P.E., G.E.

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FERC Part 12 Dam Safety Inspection, Sinclair Dam, Georgia Power CompanyDr. Findlay conducted the 2002 Part 12 inspection of Sinclair Dam on the Oconee River in Georgia. The projects includes a 104 foot high gravity dam with two embankment sections.  One of the embankment sections is partially constructed by semi-hydraulic fill methods. The FERC requested that Georgia Power conduct a post-earthquake stability analysis of this embankment.   Dr. Findlay conducted that analysis in 2003.

FERC Part 12 Dam Safety Inspection,  Elkhart and Mottville Dams, American Electric Power CompanyDr. Findlay conducted the 2002 Part 12 inspection of Elkhart and Mottville Dams on the Saint Joseph River in Michigan and Indiana. The projects includes gravity dams supported on a pile foundation and on a soil foundation.

Fortuna Dam, Chiriqui River Chiriqui, Repúblic de Panamá, EGE Fortuna S.A. - Dr. Findlay conducted the 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004 and 2005 annual inspections of Fortuna Dam, as mandated by the government of Panama. The project is located near David Panama, near the Costa Rican border. The project is owned and operated by EGE Fortuna SA, a consortium of Hydro Quebec, El Paso Corporation, and the Government of Panama, who retained Dr. Findlay for the work. The project included field inspections, review of EGE Fortuna SA files, review of stability and seismicity, review of hydrology and preparation of a summary report. Slope stability and seismic deformation analyses were also conducted. The project was completed in 1994 and includes a 400 foot high concrete face rockfill dam, over 10 kilometers of tunnels and an underground powerhouse. The project has a total generation capacity of 300 MW, and provides about 30 to 40 percent of the generation capacity of the country.

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300' High Fortuna Dam, Chiriqui, Panamá

FERC Part 12 Inspection of the Oroville-Thermalito Power Complex, Feather River, California Department of Water Resources - Dr Findlay was a FERC Approved Independent Consultant for the 1999 Part 12 Inspection of the Oroville-Thermalito Power Complex. The project includes five developments, including the 770 foot high Oroville Dam, the largest embankment dam in the United States. The project also includes other earth and concrete gravity dams.

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770' High Oroville Dam, California DWR

FERC Part 12 Inspection of the Castaic-Devils Canyon Power Complex, California Aquaduct, Greater Los Angeles Area, California Department of Water Resources - Dr Findlay was a FERC Approved Independent Consultant for the 1999 Part 12 Inspection of the Castaic-Devils Canyon Power Complex. The project includes four developments, including Pyramid Dam and Cedar Springs Dam. Portions of the project straddle the San Andreas fault.

FERC Part 12 Dam Safety Inspection, Aziscohos Dam, FPL Maine Hydro Dr. Findlay conducted the 2002 Part 12 inspection of Aziscohos Dam in Maine. The projects includes a 75 foot high slab and buttress structure, and a separate hydraulic fill embankment.  Follow up work has included a liquefaction/post-earthquake analysis (using SLOPE/W) of a hydraulic fill dam on the project, and cross channel finite element analysis (using SAP2000) of a slab and buttress structure.

FERC Part 12 Dam Safety Inspections, Oswegatchie River Project, New York, Orion Power Corporation - Dr. Findlay was the Independent Consultant for conducting the 2001 FERC Part 12 Inspections for the Oswegatchie River Project which includes three developments consisting of concrete gravity dams and dikes up to about 70 feet in height.  The project is located in the Northern Adirondack Mountains of New York State.

FERC Part 12 Dam Safety Inspections, Lower Utica Project, Utica Power Authority/Henwood Energy Services, Inc., Angles Creek – In 1997, Dr. Findlay was the Independent Consultant for conducting the FERC Part 12 Inspections for three projects on tributaries of the Stanislaus River, including: Murphys Forebay, Murphys Afterbay, and Hunters Reservoir dams.

FERC Part 12 Dam Safety Inspections, Allens Falls Project, New York, Orion Power Corporation - Dr. Findlay was the Independent Consultant for conducting the 1998 FERC Part 12 Inspection of the  Allen Falls  Project which a concrete gravity dam and earth abutment dikes up to about 50 feet in height.  The project is located in the Northern Adirondack Mountains of New York State.  Follow-up work included slope stability analysis of the embankment dikes under the pertinent loading conditions using the computer program SLOPE/W.

FERC Part 12 Inspection of the Lost Creek Project, Northern Lights, Inc., Troy, Montana - Dr. Findlay was the FERC approved Independent Consultant for the Part 12 Inspection of the Lost Creek Project. The project includes a gravity dam, flow line and penstocks, surge chamber, and two powerhouses.  On-going work will include post-earthquake analysis of the gravity dam.

FERC Part 12 Inspection of the Hells Canyon Project, Snake River, Idaho Power Company - Dr. Findlay participated in the on-site inspection and addressed geotechnical and seismic issues for the 1999 Part 12 Inspection of Idaho Power's Hells Canyon Project.  The project consists of Hells Canyon Dam, Oxbow Dam and Brownlee Dam.  Dr. Findlay also conducted follow up analyses to assess the liquefaction susceptibility of the foundations of Brownlee and Oxbow Dams.

FERC Part 12 Dam Safety Inspections, Stanislaus and Mokelumne River and Tributaries, California, Pacific Gas & Electric Company - Dr. Findlay was the Independent Consultant for conducting the FERC Part 12 Inspections for ten projects in the Stanislaus and Mokelumne River areas, including: Lyons, Tiger Creek Afterbay, Main Strawberry, Tiger Creek Regulator, Salt Springs, Lake Tabeaud, Upper Blue Lake, Lower Bear River (2 dams), Upper Bear River, and Relief dams. The projects include a mix of earthfill, earth and rockfill, concrete faced earthfill and rockfill, concrete arch and slab/buttress dams up to 332 feet in height in Seismic Zone 3. The inspections included a review of site seismicity and review of analyses of seismic stability.

FERC Part 12 Dam Safety Inspections, Beaver River Project, New York, Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation - Dr. Findlay was the Independent Consultant for conducting the 1996 FERC Part 12 Inspections for the Beaver River Project which includes four developments and a mix of concrete gravity and earthfill dams up to about 120 feet in height.  He is also conducting the 2002 Part 12 Inspection of this project.

FERC Part 12 Dam Safety Inspections, Lower Utica Project,  Angles Creek, California, Utica Power Authority/Henwood Energy Services, Inc., - Dr. Findlay was the Independent Consultant for conducting the FERC Part 12 Inspections for three projects on tributaries of the Stanislaus River, including: Murphys Forebay, Murphys Afterbay, and Hunters Reservoir dams. Follow-up work by Dr. Findlay included conducted two and three dimensional gravity analyses on two sections of the thrust blocks of Hunters Dam, a single concrete arch dam. In addition, Dr. Findlay Conducted a pseudo-dynamic analysis, using the method developed by Fenves and Chopra (1986).  The pseudo- dynamic analysis included use of a static 2D finite element analysis to determine the stress distribution in the dam due to the computed pseudo-dynamic loads.  No known previous analyses of the sections existed, and the area seismicity had recently been upgraded.  The thrust blocks were found to be stable for all analyzed cases.

FERC Part 12 Dam Safety Inspections, Carry Falls Project, Raquette River, New York, Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation - Dr. Findlay was the Independent Consultant for conducting the FERC Part 12 Inspections for the Carry Falls Project which includes a mix of concrete gravity dams and earthfill dikes up to about 70 feet in height.

FERC Part 12 Dam Safety Inspections, Upper Raquette River Project, New York, Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation - Dr. Findlay was the Independent Consultant for conducting the FERC Part 12 Inspections for the Upper Raquette River Project which includes five developments and a mix of concrete gravity dams and earthfill dikes up to about 70 feet in height.

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Oswego Falls Project, Orion Power, NY

FERC Part 12 Inspection, Oswego Falls Project, Oswego River, New York, Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation - Dr. Findlay conducted the first FERC Part-12 Inspection of the Oswego Falls Project (FERC No.5984-NY). which is operated by Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation (NMPC). The project is located in Fulton, New York at Lock O-2 of the Oswego Canal (Oswego River) about 12.3 miles upstream of the mouth of the river at Lake Ontario. The Oswego Canal is part of the New York State Barge Canal System operated by the New York State Canal Corporation (NYSCC), a division of the New York State Turnpike Authority (NYSTA). NMPC operates the hydroelectric aspects of the project in cooperation with NYSTA, who is responsible for facilitating navigation on the river. The portions of the project owned by NMPC include forebay walls and powerhouses. Portions of the project owned by NYSTA include the west bulkhead and the spillways. The spillways include a main and side overflow spillway, and a gated spillway section. The First FERC Independent Consultant Part 12 Inspection Report of the Project recommended reanalysis of the structural stability of the Main, Side and Gated Spillway because no analyses of the stability of the current configuration of these structures were available for review.

NMPC retained Dr. Findlay to conduct the analyses. Two and three dimensional gravity analyses for base stresses, cracked base analysis, uplift and sliding were conducted using gravity analysis spreadsheet programs developed by Dr. Findlay. Analysis of the spillway structures also considered stability against sliding on an assumed failure plane within the relatively weaker Grimsby sandstone which underlies the spillways, including review of boring logs from a previous investigation to assess if a continuous mud seam might exist at shallow depth. No shallow mud seam appears to be indicated by the boring logs. The Army Corps of Engineers Program CSLIDE was used to check stability with respect to possible sliding on a deep failure plane within the horizontally bedded rock foundation. The results of the analyses indicated that the Side, Main and Gated spillway structures have adequate stability to resist the loading conditions stipulated in the FERC Guidelines, assuming a PMF flow of 142,000 cubic feet per second. The PMF case was found to result in a tolerable cracked base condition for the PMF case of the Main and Side spillways. The structures were found to be stable assuming a friction angle of 27 degrees and a cohesion of 10 pounds per square inch.

FERC Part 12 Inspection of Brassua Dam and Snow Pond Dam, Florida Power & Light (FPL-Energy) - Dr. Findlay Conducted the 2000 Part 12 Inspection of Brassua Dam and Snow Pond Dam in Maine for FPL-Energy.  The analysis for Snow Pond Dam included an inspection of the radial gates and stress analysis of the ability of the radial gates to resist a trunnion friction coefficient of 0.3, in accordance with FERC's new radial gate assessment requirements.  The gate analysis was conducted using the three dimensional finite element program SAP2000, which is licensed to FEI by Computers and Structures, Inc. of Berkeley, CA.

NCUC 5-Year Safety Inspection, Tuxedo Hydro Project, Green River, North Carolina, Duke Power Company - Dr. Findlay conducted the 1998 North Carolina Utilities Commission 5-Year Safety Inspection of Duke Power's Tuxedo Hydro Project. The Inspection is similar in scope to a FERC Part 12 Inspection. The project includes a 254-foot-long, 130-foot-high single-arch concrete dam with an intake that serves as a thrust block on the left abutment of the arch dam. The intake was previously analyzed and shown to be satisfactory to resist the normal reservoir and seismic (0.10g) cases. Previous analyses indicated that the structure might fail at a reservoir level of 2018.1 feet; however, those analyses did not consider the reaction of the arch dam which presses the intake into the abutment, mobilizing a significant amount of side friction to resist sliding and overturn. To assess the stabilizing effects of this side friction, FEI conducted a gravity analysis (sliding, overturning and base friction computations, including consideration of the effects of a cracked base) which included consideration of side friction imposed by the arch dam on the intake. That analysis found that the intake has an adequate factor of safety, if side friction is considered, to resist floods up to at least the zero freeboard flood.

Dam Safety Inspection, Murphy Dam Project, Connecticut River, New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services - Water Resources Council - Dr. Findlay was the Project Manager, Lead Dam Inspector, and Lead Geotechnical Engineer for a detailed review of the condition of this 100 foot high zoned earthfill dam in northern New Hampshire. The project consists of a review of project seismicity since two Magnitude 5 earthquakes have occurred within about 10 kilometers of the dam within the past 35 years. In addition, work includes installation of monitoring piezometers, assessment of liquefaction potential, a review and update of the structural stability of the dam and spillway, review and update of the PMF, a dam break analysis and preparation of inundation mapping for preparation of an Emergency Action Plan, and preparation of a list and cost estimate of capital improvements anticipated to be necessary to maintain the facility into the future.

FERC Part 12 Dam Safety Inspections, Snake River, Idaho Power Company - Dr. Findlay was the Independent Consultant for conducting the FERC Part 12 Inspections for four projects on the Snake River, including: Swan Falls, C.J. Strike, Bliss and Lower Salmon dams. The projects include one earth/rockfill, and three concrete gravity dams up to 140 feet in height. The inspections included a review of site seismicity and review of analyses of seismic stability.

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C J Strike Dam, Snake River, Idaho Power

Tuxedo, Turner and Stice Shoals Projects, NC State Dam Safety Inspections, Green River, North Carolina, Duke Power Company - Dr. Findlay participated in the 1993 on-site inspection of the subject Duke Power Company Projects. He conducted review of stability analyses and prepared the summary reports for each project for submission to the State of North Carolina. The projects include a 254-foot-long, 130-foot-high single-arch concrete dam, a 668-foot-long, 86-foot-high multiple-arch concrete dam and a 600-foot-long concrete gravity dam. Dr. Findlay repeated the inspection of Tuxedo Hydro for Duke Power Company in 1998, including analysis of the sliding/overturn stability of the left thrust block, including the restraining resistance mobilized by the thrust applied by the arch dam section.

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Tuxedo Hydro Project, Duke Power

 

2011 Dam Inspection Work - Dr. Findlay will or has served this year as an Independent Consultant for dam safety inspections and/or potential failure modes analyses for Brookfield Renewable Power's  Sherman Island, Spier Falls, Beardslee, Ephratah, Inghams  Beebee Island, Black River, Deferiet, Herrings, Kamargo, Sewall Island, Baldwinville, Folton, Granby, and Varik Developments; Alabama Power's Thurlow, Yates, Bouldin, Jordan and Mitchell Projects; Algonquin Power's Grigg Falls Project; Pacificorp's Viva Naughton Project; Central Vermont Public Service's Clark Falls and Peterson Dams; FPL Energy's Upper Dam; Georgia Power's North Georgia Project (Mathis, Burton, Nacoochee, Tallulah, Yonah and Tugalo Dams); We Energy's Michigami, Big Quinnesec and Brule Projects; SCANA's Stevens Creek Project; and Vista Irrigation District's Henshaw Dam.  He is also a member of Southern California Edison's Board of Consultants for Vermilion Dam and Independent Reviewer for FPL Energy's rehabilitation of Upper and Middle Dams.

2010 Dam Inspection Work - Dr. Findlay served as an Independent Consultant for dam safety inspections and/or potential failure modes analyses for Brookfield Renewable Power's East Norfolk, Hewittville, Unionville, and Schaghticoke Projects; Pacificorp's Grace Dam; FPL Energy's Gulf Island Dam; Alabama Power's Martin Dam; NAEA Mass Energy's Red Bridge and Indian Orchard Dams; Georgia Power's North Highlands and Wallace Dams; The City of Danville Virginia's Pinnacles Project; SCANA's Saluda Dam; Duke Energy's Thorp and Tuckaseegee Projects; and We Energy's  Peave and Twin Falls Projects. In addition, Dr. Findlay was selected to participate in the independent external peer review panel to review the East Branch Dam, Elk County Pennsylvania Dam Safety Modification Study for the USACE Flood Risk Management Planning Center of Expertise as a subcontractor to Battelle.  He is also a member of Southern California Edison's Board of Consultants for Vermilion Dam and Independent Reviewer for FPL Energy's rehabilitation of Upper and Middle Dams.

2009 Dam Inspection Work - Dr. Findlay served as an Independent Consultant for dam safety inspections and/or potential failure modes analyses for Manitoba Hydro's Laurie 1, Laurie 2, Eager, Loon and Russell Dams; Georgia Power's Lloyd Shoals, and Morgan Falls Dams; Alabama Power's Logan Martin Dam; We Energies Chalk Hill and White Rapid Dams; Brookfield's Stewart's Bridge, E J West, Colton, Hannawa, Higley, and Norwood developments; Pacificorp's Copco, Iron Gate and JC Boyle Dams; Sugar River Hydro's Sugar River 1 Dam; Central Vermont Public Service's Silver Lake, Sucker Brook Diversion and Sugar Hill Dams; and FPL Energy's Weston Dam. He is also a member of Southern California Edison's Board of Consultants for Vermilion Dam and Independent Reviewer for FPL Energy's rehabilitation of Upper and Middle Dams.

2008 Dam Inspection Work - Dr. Findlay served as an Independent Consultant for dam safety inspections and/or potential failure modes analyses for Alabama Power's Weiss Bankhead Holt and Smith Dams;  Alliance Energy Renewables, LLC's Swinging Bridge Project; Brookfield Renewable Energies Franklin Falls, Hewittville, Hogansburg, Norfolk, Oswegatchie, Raymondville, Talcville, Unionville, Yaleville, Waterport, Glenwood, Oak Orchard, Hydraulic Race, Belfort, Taylorville, Eagle, and Elmer Developments; Algonquin Energy's Burt Dam, Cranberry Lake, and Phoenix Projects; We Energies Way Dam Project; Duke Energy's East Fork Project; FPL Energy's Middle Dam and Harris Project; PowerSouth's Gantt and Point A Dams; Avista's Noxon Project; Southern California Edison's Vermilion Dam, Lundy Lake Dam, Rhinedollar Dam, Saddlebag Dam, Tioga Dam, Sabrina Dam, Intake 2 Dam, Agnew Dam, Gem Lake Dam, and Rush Meadows Dam. He is also a member of Southern California Edison's Board of Consultants for Vermilion Dam.

2007 Dam Inspection Work - In  2007, Dr. Findlay served as Independent Consultant for dam safety inspections and/or potential failure modes analyses for Henry, Harris and Lay dams in Alabama for Alabama Power; Racine Dam in Ohio, Elkhart Dam in Indiana and Mottville Dam in Michigan for American Electric Power; Sinclair Dam and Bartletts Ferry Dam in Georgia for Georgia Power; Bad Creek Pumped Storage Project, Cowans Ford Dam, Mountain Island Dam and Rhodhiss Dam in North and South Carolina for Duke Power; Aziscohos Dam in Maine for Florida Power & Light; Borel Canal, Mammoth Pool, Dam 7, Dam 6, Sabrina, Bishop Intake 2, and Hillside dams in California for Southern California Edison;  Feeder, Minetto, Moshier, Soft Maple, Effley, High Falls, Piercefield, and Newton Upper Falls dams in New York State for Brookfield Power; and Hawks Nest Dam in West Virginia for Brookfield Power.  Dr. Findlay was als the facilitator for Potential Failure Modes Analyses for the North Gorham Project in Maine for Florida Power & Light and for the Slave Falls Project in Manitoba Canada for Manitoba Power.  He is also a member of Southern California Edison's Board of Consultants for Vermilion Dam.

2006 Dam Inspection Work - For 2006, Dr. Findlay served as Independent Consultant for dam safety inspections and/or potential failure modes analyses for 36 hydroelectric dams.  These include Bouldin Dam in Alabama for Alabama Power; Fortuna Dam in Panama for EGE Fortuna SA; London, Marmet and Winfield Dams in West Virginia for American Electric Power; Burton, Nachoochee, Mathis, Tallulah, Tugalo and Yonah Dams in Georgia for Georgia Power; Keowee, Fishing Creek and Bridgewater developments in North and South Carolina for Duke Power; Upper, Middle, Skelton and Flagstaff Dams in Maine for Florida Power & Light, Grigg Falls Dam for Algonquin Power in New Hampshire; Vermilion, Florence, Balsam Meadows, Huntington, Shaver Lake, Big Creek 4, and Big Creek 5 dams in California for Southern California Edison; Flat Rock, Browns Falls, and South Edwards dams in New York State and Piney Dam in Pennsylvania for Brookfield Power; Kingsley, Jeffrey and Johnson Dams in Nebraska for Central Nebraska Public Service and Irrigation District, and Remmel and Carpenter Dams in Arkansas for Entergy-Arkansas, Inc. He is also a member of Southern California Edison's Board of Consultants for Vermilion Dam.

2005 Dam Inspection Work - For 2005, Dr. Findlay is served as Independent Consultant for dam safety inspections and/or potential failure modes analyses for 28 hydroelectric projects.  These include the Martin Project in Alabama for Alabama Power; Fortuna Dam in Panama for EGE Fortuna SA; Projects in Michigan and Indiana for American Electric Power; Projects in Georgia for Georgia Power; Projects in North and South Carolina for Duke Power; Projects in Maine for Florida Power & Light and Synegics Energy Services; Projects in California for Southern California Edison; Projects in New York State for Brascan; and two additional projects for Alabama Power later in the year. He is also a member of Southern California Edison's Board of Consultants for Vermilion Dam.

2004 Dam Inspection Work - In 2004, Dr. Findlay served as Independent Consultant (including potential failure modes analyses for most of the listed projects) for the inspection of Lloyd Shoals Dam in Georgia for Georgia Power; the Weiss Project for Alabama Power; the Lake Creek Project for Northern Lights, Inc. in Montana; the Spokane River Project for Avista Corporation in Washington and Idaho; the Wyman Project for FPLE Maine Hydro LLC; the Middle and Lower Raquette River projects for Brascan in upstate New York; the Jocasse Development, Nine Mile Project, Wateree Development, Lookout Shoals Development, and the Rocky Creek/Cedar Creek Development in North and South Carolina for Duke Power; the Claytor Project for American Electric Power; Sidney A. Murray Jr. Project for Louisiana Hydroelectric; Fortuna Dam for EGE Fortuna SA in Panama; Vermilion Dam for Southern California Edison. He also serve as a Facilitator for the Potential Failure Modes Analysis of Georgia Power's Morgan Falls Dam and for the City of Danville, Virginia's Pinnicles Project. He is also a member of Southern California Edison's Board of Consultants for Vermilion Dam.

2003 Dam Inspection Work - In 2003, Dr. Findlay served on several projects as Independent Consultant and Facilitator under the FERC's new Potential Failure Modes Analysis program.  Dr. Findlay completed inspections for the following projects: Minetto and Feeder Dams and Diversion Dam for Reliant Energy in New York State; Fortuna Dam of EGE Fortuna S.A. in Panama; Noxon Rapids Dam for Avista Corporation in Montana; Moosehead Dam for FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC in Maine; Vermilion Dam for Southern California Edison in California; the Upper Raquette and Carriy Falls Projects for Reliant Energy in New York State; and three developments on the Warrior River in Alabama for Alabama Power.  Noxon Rapids Dam, Moosehead Dam, Upper Raquette Project, Carry Falls Project, and the Warrior River Projects were conducted under the new Potential Failure Mode Analysis (PFMA) Program administrated by the FERC, for which Dr Findlay served as the Part 12 Independent Consultant.  Dr. Findlay attended the general and facilitator sessions of FERC's PFMA Workshop in Washington DC in March.  In addition to the above work, Dr. Findlay was the PFMA Facilitator for AEP's Smith Mountain and Leesville Developments of the Smith Mountain Pumped Storage Project and their Reusens Project.  Dr. Findlay also facilitated PFMAs for four zoned rockfill dams of the East Fork Project for Duke Power in western North Carolina.

FERC Part 12 Dam Safety Inspection, Mitchell and Jordan Dams, Alabama Power CompanyDr. Findlay conducted the 2001 Part 12 inspection of Jordan and Mitchell Dams on the Coosa River in Alabama. The projects includes a 106 foot high gravity dam and a 125 foot high gravity arch dam.

FERC Part 12 Dam Safety Inspection, Skelton and Flagstaff Projects, Florida Power & Light Corporation – Dr. Findlay conducted the 2001 Part 12 inspection of the Skelton and Flagstaff Projects in Maine. The projects include earth and gravity sections. Both projects included detailed inspection of radial flood gates and stress analyses of the ability of the radial gates to resist a trunnion friction coefficient of 0.3, in accordance with FERC's new radial gate assessment requirements.  The gate analyses were conducted using the three dimensional finite element program SAP2000, which is licensed to FEI by Computers and Structures, Inc. of Berkeley, CA.

Directors Inspection, Delta Dams Projects, California Department of Water Resources Dr. Findlay was selected and served as one of three members on the 2001 Board of Consultants for the independent dam safety assessment of Clifton Court Forebay, Bethany, Patterson, and Del Valle Dams. The project included field inspection of the projects, review of stability analyses and instrumentation records, and preparation of a summary report to the Director of the Department of Water Resources.

FERC Part 12 Inspection of the Spokane River Projects, Spokane River, Avista Corporation - Dr. Findlay was the FERC Approved Independent Consultant for the 1999 Part 12 inspection of Avista Corporation's (formerly Washington Water Power) Spokane River Projects, located in Idaho and Washington. The projects inspected include Post Falls Dam, Nine Mile Dam and Long Lake Dam.

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411' High Mammoth Pool Dam, So. Cal. Edison

FERC Part 12 Dam Safety Inspections, 23 Dams and 1 Canal, California, Southern California Edison CompanyIn 1997 and 2002, Dr. Findlay was selected to be the Independent Consultant for conducting the FERC Part 12 Inspections for all of Southern California Edison's projects including Shaver Lake, Florence Lake, Big Creek (4 dams), Huntington Lake (4 dams), Balsam Meadow Forebay, Mammoth Pool, Vermilion, Lundy, Tioga, Saddlebag, Agnew, Gem, Rush Meadows, Sabrina, Bishop Creek Intake No. 2, and Hillside Dams as well as the Borel Canal. The projects are located on the east and west slopes of the Sierra Nevada Mountains and the Kern River area. The projects include a mix of earthfill, earth and rockfill, concrete and timber faced rockfill, concrete gravity, concrete arch and concrete multiple arch dams, up to 411 feet in height, all located in Seismic Zones 3 and 4. The inspections included detailed review of site specific seismicity and seismic stability. Follow up work conducted by Dr. Findlay included seepage analysis to assess uplift on a gravity dam founded on soil, use of CRFLOOD to assess uplift on a gravity dam founded on rock under PMF loading conditions, finite element analysis of an arch dam, and rock slope stability assessment of the abutments of three concrete arch dams.

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Vermilion Dam, Southern California Edison

Bad Creek Pumped Storage Project, First FERC Part 12 Dam Safety Inspection, Bad Creek, South Carolina, Duke Power Company - Dr.  Findlay was the FERC Approved Independent Consultant for the first (1996) and 2001 5-year Part 12 Safety Inspections of Duke Power Company's 1,065 MW Bad Creek Pumped Storage Project. The project includes three earth fill, rock shell dams up to 360 feet in height, a 31,338 acre-feet upper reservoir, and a four single-stage reversible pump/turbines with vertical-type motor/generators situated in a powerhouse cavern located about 600 feet underground. The project includes several hundred feet of power, tailrace and access tunnels mined in gneissic bedrock. The head difference between the upper and lower reservoir is up to 1,200 feet.

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Bad Creek Pumped Storage Project, Duke Power

Keowee Hydroelectric Project, Dam Safety Inspection, Keowee River, South Carolina, Duke Power Company - Dr. Findlay was the FERC Approved Independent Consultant for the 1996 and 2001 5-year Part 12 Safety Inspection of Duke Power Company's 140 MW Keowee Hydroelectric Project. The project includes seven rolled earth dams and saddle dikes, two of which are 160 feet in height, a concrete ogee spillway with four radial gates, a barrel gate intake, power tunnel and powerhouse.

Jocassee Project, FERC Part 12 Dam Safety Inspection, Duke Power Company, Keowee River, South Carolina - Dr. Findlay participated in the on-site FERC Part 12 inspection of Duke Power Company's Jocassee Pump Storage Project. He conducted review of stability analyses and prepared the summary report for submission to the FERC. The project consists of a 385-foot-high, 1,825-feet-long earth core/rock fill shell dam, two saddle dikes, a gated spillway, two barrel gated intakes, diversion tunnels, and a powerhouse. The powerhouse contains four reversible pump-turbine units with a total installed capacity of 610 MW.

Buzzard's Roost Project, FERC Part 12 Dam Safety Inspection, Saluda River, South Carolina, Duke Power Company - Dr. Findlay participated in the FERC Part 12 on-site inspection and prepared the summary report for Duke Power Company's Buzzards Roost Project. The project is located on the Saluda River, near Chappels, South Carolina. The project consists of a 2,400-foot-long, 80-foot-high earth embankment, a 200-foot-long fuse plug, and an 80-foot-high gated spillway/ogee, and integrated intake and 15 MW powerhouse. As a follow up to the 5-year inspection, Dr. Findlay provided a peer review of a liquefaction analysis conducted by Duke Power as ordered by the FERC. The analysis is on the 80-foot earth embankment which is founded on alluvial sands.

FERC Part 12 Dam Safety Inspections, Pit River and Tributaries, California, Pacific Gas & Electric Company - Dr. Findlay was the Independent Consultant for conducting the FERC Part 12 Inspections for nine projects in the Pit River area between Mount Shasta and Mount Lassen in Northern California, including: McCloud, Iron Canyon, Pit 1, Pit 3, Pit 4, Pit 5, Pit 6, Pit 7, and North Battle Creek dams. The projects include a mix of earthfill, earth and rockfill, concrete faced rockfill, concrete gravity and slab/buttress dams up to 235 feet in height in Seismic Zone 2 and 3. The inspections included a review of site seismicity and review of analyses of seismic stability.

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Iron Canyon Dam, PG&E

 

 

 

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